Using 56 indicators, "determining environmental status and assessing marine ecosystems health in an integrative way is still one of the grand challenges in marine ecosystems ecology, research and management" . Another issue with indicators is validity. Good indicators must have an independently validated high predictive value , that is high sensitivity high probability of indicating a significant change in the indicandum and high specificity low probability of wrongly indicating a change.
The reliability of various health metrics has been questioned  and "what combination of measurements should be used to evaluate ecosystems is a matter of current scientific debate.
In some cases no reliable indicators are known: "We found no examples of invertebrates successfully used in [forest] monitoring programs. Their richness and abundance ensure that they play significant roles in ecosystem function but thwart focus on a few key species. Understanding the response of a single species may not provide reliable predictions about a group of species even when the group is comprised of a few very similar species.
A trade-off between human health and the "health" of nature has been termed the "health paradox"  and it illuminates how human values drive perceptions of ecosystem health. Human health has benefited by sacrificing the "health" of wild ecosystems, such as dismantling and damming of wild valleys, destruction of mosquito -bearing wetlands , diversion of water for irrigation , conversion of wilderness to farmland , timber removal, and extirpation of tigers , whales, ferrets, and wolves.
There has been an acrimonious schism among conservationists and resource managers   over the question of whether to "ratchet back human domination of the biosphere" or whether to embrace it. The utilitarian view treats human health and well-being as criteria of ecosystem health.
Proponents of the utilitarian view argue that "healthy ecosystems are characterized by their capability to sustain healthy human populations,"  and "healthy ecosystems must be economically viable," as it is "unhealthy" ecosystems that are likely to result in increases in contamination , infectious diseases , fires, floods, crop failures and fishery collapse.
Protectionists argue that privileging of human health is a conflict of interest as humans have demolished massive numbers of ecosystems to maintain their welfare, also disease and parasitism are historically normal in pre-industrial nature.
The very choice of the word "health" applied to ecology has been questioned as lacking in neutrality in a BioScience article on responsible use of scientific language: "Some conservationists fear that these terms could endorse human domination of the planet … and could exacerbate the shifting cognitive baseline whereby humans tend to become accustomed to new and often degraded ecosystems and thus forget the nature of the past. Criticism of ecosystem health largely targets the failure of proponents to explicitly distinguish the normative dimension from the descriptive dimension, and has included the following:.
Alternatives have been proposed for the term ecosystem health, including more neutral language such as ecosystem status,  ecosystem prognosis, and ecosystem sustainability. Kurt Jax  presented an ecosystem assessment format that avoids imposing a preconceived notion of normality, that avoids the muddling of normative and descriptive, and that gives serious attention to ecosystem definition.
Ecological health has been used as a medical term in reference to human allergy and multiple chemical sensitivity  and as a public health term for programs to modify health risks diabetes, obesity, smoking, etc. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Ecological health or Environmental health. Ecosystem Health. Blackwell Scientific. Febria Edinburgh: John Brown. Framer's Magazine, 2 5 Baird, and Eric T. Washington DC: Island Press. Ecosystem Functioning.
Introduction The emergence of One Health OH and EcoHealth EH approaches over the past decade, recently complemented by the Planetary Health PH movement 1 , illustrates the consolidation of a consensus in the veterinary and public-health domains that there is a need for integrated, interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral approaches to better understand health issues, and to improve the sustainability and relevance of interventions targeting individual and population health in various social, cultural and environmental contexts. Collecting information in secondary sources: Analysis of demographic, economic, historical, environmental and health damage information data in the municipality. Current Issue. In particular, with the first Thai-Lao Friendship Bridge built in as a start, motorization has accelerated in Laos. Myers , Lynne Gaffikin , Christopher D.
Chen, and Y. Sea Environ. Wallace et al. Journal of Systems Science and Complexity. Scott Edward McLeod Which wolf, which trap? Socially constructing wolves and trapping in western Montana.
Its integrative approach not only focuses on managing the environment to improve health, but also analyzes underlying social and economic determinants of health to develop innovative, people-centere Ecosystems and Human Health introduces Ecohealth as an emerging field of study, traces its evolution, and explains its applications in cross-disciplinary and holistic programs.
Its integrative approach not only focuses on managing the environment to improve health, but also analyzes underlying social and economic determinants of health to develop innovative, people-centered interventions. Get A Copy.
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