Learned Discourse on Justification - Enhanced Version

Chapter 1. Why Talk Is Important in Classrooms
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Each pair of students engaged in this procedure twice a week, resulting in a total of eight times, over the course of four weeks. The students who had engaged in peer learning scored significantly higher on the QRI Quality Reading Inventory test than the students who had not, indicating the effectiveness peer tutoring can have on academic achievement. The accuracy of the retellings was examined using the QRI retelling scoring procedure to determine whether there is a relationship between peer tutoring and higher retelling accuracy.

The retelling data was scored using the QRI retelling scoring sheet, and retellings were assigned a numeral score.

The scores over the four week period were graphed and examined to determine whether there is any relationship between the pair of students engaged in peer tutoring and individually-working students. The students who had engaged in peer learning scored significantly higher on the QRI test than the students who had not, indicating the effectiveness peer tutoring can have on academic achievement. This is just one example; to name them all here would take far more time than you or I have to spare. Despite its popularity, peer teaching has come under considerable scrutiny in recent years, especially in the K community.

She cites lack of evidence as a primary concern, mentioning a National Mathematics Advisory Panel which reviewed instances of instruction in which students were primarily doing the teaching. The panel found only a handful of studies that met its standards for quality. Otherwise, peer teaching seems to be a waste of precious classroom time. Her primary issue with peer teaching, though, is the return on her investment. Some students may feel that being tutored by another makes them inferior to that student, setting up an adversarial relationship from the start.

If a student develops this feeling of inferiority, he may be less than eager to work with his assigned peer and, as a result, not put his full effort into the tutoring program.

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The blog also mentions lack of confidentiality, parental concerns, time and scheduling conflicts, and improper tutor selection as possible problems. All valid points, to be sure. But, as is the case with most educational strategies, the boons outweigh the burdens if it is implemented correctly. Below are a few suggestions for employing peer teaching in your own classroom. Existing research identifies adequate tutor training as an essential component of peer tutoring programs.

One after-school peer tutoring program implemented in a middle school in California, called StudentStudent, offers tutoring in a variety of subjects to students with the help of high-achieving eighth graders. StudentStudent is selective in its recruitment of tutors. Qualified eighth graders meeting a minimum GPA requirement and demonstrating high citizenship must complete an application process and obtain approval from their teachers before being paired with struggling students.

The program advisor then matches tutors to students based on who seems to be a good match academically and socially. Tutors receive quality training in effective ways to work with their tutees. This program led to a significant improvement in core subject letter grades for all participants.

In an evaluation of the program, participants also demonstrated increased responsibility, completion of homework assignments, and significantly improved work habits. In another peer teaching program, sixth grade students enrolled in general reading education classes in a Midwestern, urban middle school were assigned to tutoring pairs of either equal ability or pairs in which high-achieving students modeled successful learning with lower-achieving students.

Similar to StudentStudent, the students received training prior to tutoring. What sets this peer tutoring program apart from common peer tutoring practices is the inclusion of a reward system for students to encourage participation and on-task behavior. During the sessions, the teacher supervised all activities and passed out raffle tickets to students exhibiting good tutoring or on-task behavior.

Students' questions: a potential resource for teaching and learning science

Students wrote their names on earned tickets and placed them in a collection throughout each week. At the end of each week, the teacher would draw several names of students who could each choose a small prize from a box of inexpensive toys. Evaluation of the class-wide peer tutoring model with rewards for good behavior showed substantial letter grade improvements for the students.

The lottery system for reinforcing participation and on-task behavior was show to overcome challenges to student motivation.

Unwavering Focus - Dandapani - TEDxReno

Emphasize confidentiality, positive reinforcement, and adequate response time. The tutors at StudentStudent are taught to demonstrate three important things during any given tutoring session: confidentiality, positive reinforcement, and adequate response time when asking questions.

CLASSROOM DISCOURSE, COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE

The training process also instructed tutors on explaining directions, designing work for extra practice, watching for and correcting mistakes, and providing positive feedback and encouragement. You must consciously orchestrate the learning exercise and choose the appropriate vehicle for it. Only then will students in fact engage in peer learning and reap the benefits of peer teaching. During the first week of the sixth grade reading program, project staff explained the tutoring procedures and the lottery, modeled each component of the program, and used role-playing to effectively demonstrate ways to praise and correct their peers.

To reap the benefits of peer teaching, tutees must reach a point when they are practicing a new task on their own. See our guide on instructional scaffolding here for further explanation. A tutor who engages in directive tutoring becomes a surrogate teacher, taking the role of an authority and imparting knowledge. The tutor who takes the non-directive approach is more of a facilitator, helping the student draw out the knowledge he already possesses.

Under the directive approach, the tutor imparts knowledge on the tutee and explains or tells the tutee what he should think about a given topic. Under the non-directive approach, the tutor draws knowledge out of the tutee, asking open-ended questions to help the student come to his own conclusions about the topic. Both are valid methods, but different levels of each should be used with different students and in different scenarios.

Positive verbal feedback: Teach your tutors the importance of positive verbal feedback. Prompt students to come up with a list of standard statements which they feel may be positively reinforcing. The students then individually gave a retelling of the story to the investigator. The second pair of students read the same passage separately and individually gave a retelling of the story to the investigator.

Each pair of students engaged in this procedure twice a week, resulting in a total of eight times, over the course of four weeks. The students who had engaged in peer learning scored significantly higher on the QRI Quality Reading Inventory test than the students who had not, indicating the effectiveness peer tutoring can have on academic achievement.

The accuracy of the retellings was examined using the QRI retelling scoring procedure to determine whether there is a relationship between peer tutoring and higher retelling accuracy. The retelling data was scored using the QRI retelling scoring sheet, and retellings were assigned a numeral score. The scores over the four week period were graphed and examined to determine whether there is any relationship between the pair of students engaged in peer tutoring and individually-working students. The students who had engaged in peer learning scored significantly higher on the QRI test than the students who had not, indicating the effectiveness peer tutoring can have on academic achievement.

This is just one example; to name them all here would take far more time than you or I have to spare. Despite its popularity, peer teaching has come under considerable scrutiny in recent years, especially in the K community. She cites lack of evidence as a primary concern, mentioning a National Mathematics Advisory Panel which reviewed instances of instruction in which students were primarily doing the teaching. The panel found only a handful of studies that met its standards for quality.

Otherwise, peer teaching seems to be a waste of precious classroom time. Her primary issue with peer teaching, though, is the return on her investment. Some students may feel that being tutored by another makes them inferior to that student, setting up an adversarial relationship from the start. If a student develops this feeling of inferiority, he may be less than eager to work with his assigned peer and, as a result, not put his full effort into the tutoring program.

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The blog also mentions lack of confidentiality, parental concerns, time and scheduling conflicts, and improper tutor selection as possible problems. All valid points, to be sure.

Associated Data

We also thank Jonathan Dain for his valuable insights into conflict and collaboration and George Ruyle for inspiring research on this topic in the context of the Sprucedale Forest. One of the most important things we needed to do was to plan for the academic conversations to occur. In a nutshell, the students were placed in situations where they had to pose questions to steer and extend their own thinking. Because talking science Lemke, Lemke, J. In this case, a positive number means on that day the volume of discussion about ISIS within the Arabic Twittersphere was larger than the mean around , tweets, as noted above ; a negative number indicates the opposite. It should be noted that the majority of peer-tutoring programs for students are intended to complement, not substitute for, regular classroom instruction.

But, as is the case with most educational strategies, the boons outweigh the burdens if it is implemented correctly. Below are a few suggestions for employing peer teaching in your own classroom. Existing research identifies adequate tutor training as an essential component of peer tutoring programs.

One after-school peer tutoring program implemented in a middle school in California, called StudentStudent, offers tutoring in a variety of subjects to students with the help of high-achieving eighth graders.

How Peer Teaching Improves Student Learning and 10 Ways To Encourage It

StudentStudent is selective in its recruitment of tutors. Qualified eighth graders meeting a minimum GPA requirement and demonstrating high citizenship must complete an application process and obtain approval from their teachers before being paired with struggling students. The program advisor then matches tutors to students based on who seems to be a good match academically and socially. Tutors receive quality training in effective ways to work with their tutees. This program led to a significant improvement in core subject letter grades for all participants.

In an evaluation of the program, participants also demonstrated increased responsibility, completion of homework assignments, and significantly improved work habits. In another peer teaching program, sixth grade students enrolled in general reading education classes in a Midwestern, urban middle school were assigned to tutoring pairs of either equal ability or pairs in which high-achieving students modeled successful learning with lower-achieving students.

Similar to StudentStudent, the students received training prior to tutoring. What sets this peer tutoring program apart from common peer tutoring practices is the inclusion of a reward system for students to encourage participation and on-task behavior. During the sessions, the teacher supervised all activities and passed out raffle tickets to students exhibiting good tutoring or on-task behavior.

Students wrote their names on earned tickets and placed them in a collection throughout each week. At the end of each week, the teacher would draw several names of students who could each choose a small prize from a box of inexpensive toys. Evaluation of the class-wide peer tutoring model with rewards for good behavior showed substantial letter grade improvements for the students. The lottery system for reinforcing participation and on-task behavior was show to overcome challenges to student motivation.

Emphasize confidentiality, positive reinforcement, and adequate response time. The tutors at StudentStudent are taught to demonstrate three important things during any given tutoring session: confidentiality, positive reinforcement, and adequate response time when asking questions.

How Peer Teaching Improves Student Learning and 10 Ways To Encourage It

Learned Discourse on Justification - Enhanced Version - Kindle edition by Richard Hooker. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or. Re:learned discourse on justification enhanced version. Learned Discourse on Justification - Enhanced Version and other options as A Learned Discourse Of.

The training process also instructed tutors on explaining directions, designing work for extra practice, watching for and correcting mistakes, and providing positive feedback and encouragement. You must consciously orchestrate the learning exercise and choose the appropriate vehicle for it. Only then will students in fact engage in peer learning and reap the benefits of peer teaching. During the first week of the sixth grade reading program, project staff explained the tutoring procedures and the lottery, modeled each component of the program, and used role-playing to effectively demonstrate ways to praise and correct their peers.

CLASSROOM DISCOURSE

To reap the benefits of peer teaching, tutees must reach a point when they are practicing a new task on their own. See our guide on instructional scaffolding here for further explanation. A tutor who engages in directive tutoring becomes a surrogate teacher, taking the role of an authority and imparting knowledge.

The tutor who takes the non-directive approach is more of a facilitator, helping the student draw out the knowledge he already possesses.